By the time this is published, I will have finished my grading for the Winter semester, however as of drafting, I am procrastinating from finishing. That means it’s time to let my mind wander and to blog about it.
The course I’ve been teaching since Fall 2016 is a light, multidisciplinary romp through philosophy that examines various topics in human experience through multiple lenses. Often, this is one of the first general education courses the students encounter, and for many it is the first time they are getting into something approximating formalized philosophy. It’s an online course, so the students work their way through the module material, post to discussion boards, and submit weekly asignments. The modules are a mix of text, graphics, and embedded videos, and all things considered is a pretty marked departure from my first course in philosophy.
My introduction to philosophy was significantly more old school. We all had copies of Cahn’s Classics in Western Philosophy (the sixth edition), and we started the semester on Plato. It was my first class in university, and my first introduction to academic philosophy. In a small way, that course has dictated how, in my mind, philosophy gets taught. It is my default template for teaching – the professor stands at the front and pontificates in fifty minute blocks of time. I never questioned it; I just tried to take notes, not really knowing how one takes notes about the lecture material.
Since then, I’ve seen a few different pedagogical approaches to teaching an intro phil course. You can teach the material chronologically, topically, using ancient sources, using modern case studies, you can approach the different branches of philosophy thematically, or you could teach the material historically.
But there is another axiom I’ve been thinking about when teaching philosophy (or any topic for that matter):
Should I require the students to read the text before or after the lecture?
On first glance, this seems like a silly question. Afterall, the lecture is about exploring ideas, clarifying thought, and demonstrating how to extend the ideas. Students should grapple with the text and work to come to an understanding. If there are problems with the text, they can bring their questions to class for rich discussions. After reading the text, the students can teach the concepts to each other and have fruitful conversations about the ideas. Why would you want to let the students not read the text?
On the other hand, it depends on what your goals are. You see, the problem with requiring the students to read the text prior to the lecture, at least at an introductory level, is that the students often don’t possess the vocabulary or the historical schema’s to truly understand the work in front of them. In an introductory philosophy course, I’m not looking for students to master the material. Often times, I’m not even looking for them to be right in their arguments. Instead, I’m looking for other skills, like close reading, comprehension, and (most importantly) the ability to read text charitably. The hardest thing for students to grapple with in intro phil is that they are seeking to be right and rarely allow themselves to explore ideas.
Plato wrote more than 2000 years ago – what could he possibly have to say in his silly dialogues that helps me today? Given the current political climate, I’d say his Republic has a lot to say (I’m looking at you, Thrasymachus).
If I give students a text, they don’t have the benefit of a historical view. They don’t understand the context in which the author is writing. They don’t understand the conventions of language and allusions. They don’t see the historical dialogue that is unfolding on the page, where the author is addressing thinkers who came before them. For instance, in my experience, the vast majority of students who read Descartes for the first time end up thinking Descartes literally believes an evil genius is out to deceive him. They get so fixated on trying to keep up with what Descartes is doing that they lose sight of the argument being laid out before their eyes.
Reading the text before class is a great way to have students develop critical thinking skills, but if you want the students to understand what they are reading, it might be worth your time to consider helping them to explore the text together. At least for an intro phil course.